Semantic maps and Temperature: capturing the lexicon-grammar interface across languages

Maria Koptjevskaja Tamm er uddannet ved Lomonosov-Universitetet i Moskva og ph.d. fra Stockholms Universitet hvor hun side 2001 har været professor i lingvistik. Hun forsker i semantisk orienteret typologi, ofte med fokus på samspillet mellem leksikon og grammatik, og interesserer sig bl.a. for nominalisering (jf. monografien Nominalizations 1993), slægtskabstermer, proprier, kvantifikation, finithed, areal typologi og cirkumbaltiske sprog. Senest har hun arbejdet med tværsproglig forskning i leksikalsk typologi med fokus på temperaturtermer, bevægelsesverber og metodiske problemstillinger. Hun har bidraget til World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS), er redaktør af Linguistic Typology og medlem af Det Europæiske Akademi (Academia Europaea).

Abstract

Traditionally, lexical typology has to a large extent been interested in lexical categorization of various cognitive domains (e.g., colour, perception, body), i.e., in how these are cut up by the most important words in a language, and in lexical motivation, i.e. in whether words for certain concepts are formally related to others (e.g., intransitive vs. transitive verbs like ’die’ vs. ‘kill’ or ’lie’ vs. ‘lay', words for ‘day’ and ‘sun’, etc.). Grammatical behaviour of words and morphosyntactic patterns as encoding meanings traditionally belong to grammatical typology. In this paper I will consider the domain of temperature and show how the close interaction between lexicon and grammar in the encoding of the temperature domain across languages calls for an integrated lexico-grammatical approach to these phenomena. As a useful tool for such an enterprise I suggest an elaborated semantic map comprising three layers – the temperature lexeme itself, its formal properties, and the constructions it occurs in.